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Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. It consists of five major islands, Sumatra, Java/Madura, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua and some 30 smaller groups totaling of 17,508 islands and isles, of which about 6,000 are inhabited.

The overall water resources potential in Indonesia is estimated at 3.906 km3/annum scattered over 5,888 rivers throughout the archipelago, of which about 157 km3/annum is currently utilized. It is used for agriculture at about 80%, domestic and industries at 20%.

Considering the suitability of soil, the availability of water and the farmers, the total land area of irrigated agriculture is identified at about 9 million hectares which consist of surface irrigation and lowland irrigation. From this number, only 10.7% of surface irrigation area which supplied by the reservoir, while the remaining 89.3% being supply by river run-off

Irrigation development in Indonesia had been practices longer before Hindu people came. In the fifth century there are some notable irrigation infrastructures built by the local community. They are Cilincing (North Of Jakarta), shortcut of Bekasi/Cakung River, East of Jakarta. The first irrigation structure in east Java built in the year 808 AD or 726 Caka year. The community of Harinjing Village, in the Brantas River Basin, East Java built a dyke crossing the river for water diversion (irrigation) and flood prevention as well as for human settlement.

This weir was rehabilitated as the permanent structure in the year 1350 AD. The oldest permanent irrigation structure was built in the year 1826 in West Sumatra i.e.’’Batang Mimpi Weir’’, followed by Sampean Weir in East Java. The latest mentioned weir was complete in year 1832.

The total irrigated paddy field in the year 2015 noted as about 7.1 million ha and the national rice production noted as (year 2015) 75.4 million tons. In addition of above mentioned rice production, the productions of the secondary crops in the same year are; 19.6 million tons of maize, 963,000 tons of soybean and 605,000 tons of peanut.