Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world, consists about 17,541 islands. The territory of Indonesia is 5,2 million km2 with 1,9 million km2 of which is the mainland. The climate is equatorial tropical monsoon-type and the average temperatures is about 28oC. The accessible water resources potential of Indonesia is about 2,530 km3. Even though Indonesia have a lot of water resources, only two percent or about 96 m3/capita/year is being utilize, with 76% of it used for agriculture.

As a staple food in Indonesia, rice become the main crop grown especially on irrigated area. About 7.2 million hectares (7.2 Mha) irrigation area has been built. Upland irrigation gives 84% rice production to the national rice production. Other rice production contributed by rainfed rice (10%), lowland rice (5%), and groundwater (1%). The national rice production was 75.4 million tons (75.4 MT) dry husked rice in 2015. Thus, in term of self-sufficiency, the production is adequate to meet the demand, yet in term of food security, Indonesia still need some effort to prevent global food crisis.

Irrigation development in Indonesia have been practiced long time ago. In the fifth century, there are some notable irrigation infrastructures built by the local community, i.e Cilincing (North Jakarta) to shortcut of Bekasi/Cakung River (East Jakarta), then irrigation in Brantas River Basin (East Java) that being built by the community of Harinjing Village on 808 AD or 726 Caka year. The community built a dyke crossing the river for water diversion (irrigation) and flood prevention as well. The weir was rehabilitated as the permanent structure on 1350 AD. The oldest permanent irrigation structure was built on 1826 in West Sumatra i.e.’’Batang Mimpi Weir’’, followed by Sampean Weir in East Java.

Although development in Indonesia continues, challenges are increasing as well. The need to increase rice production due to population growth, low irrigation efficiency, climate change, infrastructure aging, and land use conversion. Furthermore, the lowland development has to deal with the environment and integration issues. The policy of irrigation development, is designed to attain both food security and farmers welfare. The effort being achieved through rehabilitation, upgrading and improvement of Operation and Maintenance (O&M). The development of new irrigation scheme is aimed to compensate the increasing food demand and the rice field conversion. Approach towards modernization irrigation on the basis of the five pillars also begin to be implemented, those five pillars are water availability, infrastructure, management, institutions and human resources.



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